京剧源流声腔音乐京剧剧本行当化妆行头基本功和表演式京剧图书脸谱

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京剧行当 Role of Sheng

时间:2007-06-10 20:43:35 来源:不详 编辑:佚名

京剧行当
京剧在塑造人物方面有其独特的造型语言。它把不同性别、性格、年龄、身份的人物划分为不同的行当,一般说来有"生、旦、净、丑"四大行当。由于京剧人物造型形象鲜明、风格多样,有强烈的剧场效果,常常更易于激起观众的欣赏兴趣。

生行

京剧中的 "生",一般指剧中扮演男子的演员,其中又可细分为"老生"、"小生"和"武生"。"老生",顾名思义就是中老年男子角色,在剧中多扮演正直刚毅的人物形象,例如京剧《伍子胥》中的伍子胥.他们演出时要戴挂在耳朵上的假胡须,在京剧的行话中也叫"髯口",因此还专门有一套髯口上的表演功夫。胡须的颜色表示了人物的年龄。京剧《四郎探母》中的杨四郎年约三十岁,所戴胡须为黑色。京剧《秦香莲》中王延龄年约六十,所戴胡须为白色。老生在剧中一般注重演唱和细腻表演,唱腔上也最为丰富。台词用京剧中的韵白来表现,演唱用真声,风格刚劲、挺拔、质朴、醇厚,动作造型也以雍容、端方、庄重为基调。与老生相对应的是 "小生",在京剧中指青少
年男子角色,他们在剧中的动作造型儒雅倜傥、秀逸飞动。在演唱上采用真假声结合的唱法,演唱风格华美和明亮。例如京剧《白蛇传》中的许仙.
"武生"是指扮演剧中年轻的男性武将,他们用高超的武打技术来展示剧中人物的武艺高强。不重演唱,注重武打动作的娴熟和技巧的难度。例如京剧《长坂坡》中的赵云.

Role of Sheng

The roles on the Chinese opera stage fall into four categories -- Sheng, Dan, Jing and Chou. These roles have the natural features of age and sex, as well as social status, and are artificially exaggerated by makeup, costume and gestures.

Sheng, a male role, usually a leading one, dates back to Southern Drama of the Song and Yuan Dynasties (960-1368). This role appears in operas in all historical periods. According to the age and social status of the characters, Sheng falls into five sub-groups: Laosheng, Xiaosheng, Wusheng, Hongsheng and Wawasheng (characters of children).

Laosheng is also known as Xusheng, meaning bearded men, because the actors wear artificial beards, and they are middle-aged or elderly men. Most are upright and resolute characters. They sing in their natural voices, and their actions are serious ones.

Xiaosheng is a sub-category of Sheng representing young male characters. They don't wear artificial beards. They always sing in their real voices, while in Kunqu and Pihuang operas the singing mixes natural and falsetto voices.

Wusheng stands for all of the male characters who appear in battle scenes. They are further subdivided into Changkao Wuheng, Duanda Wusheng, Goulian Wusheng and Houxi Wusheng. They always wear helmets and thick-soled boots. The generals always carry long pikes. Wusheng roles call for sturdy and vigorous actions, with resounding declamations. The movements of the waist and legs are powerful, and a high level of martial arts skills is demanded in these roles. Duanda Wusheng roles use short-handled weapons, and their movements are light and swift.




旦行

京剧中把女性统称为"旦",其中按照人物的年龄、性格又可细分为许多行当,饰演大家闺秀和有身份的妇女称为"正旦",正旦在京剧中俗称"青衣",这就是因为正旦所扮演的角色常穿青色的长衫而得名。京剧《窦娥冤》中的女主角窦娥就是典型的青衣角色。青衣的表演庄重娴静,秀雅柔婉,以唱功为主,一般说来,青衣的唱腔旋律优美,细腻婉转。旦行中的"花旦",多扮演天真活泼或放荡泼辣的青衣妇女,在表演上注重做工和念白,例如《红娘》中的红娘. "武旦"和"刀马旦"相当于生行中的武生,扮演的是擅长武艺的青壮年妇女,装扮和武生差不多,也扎靠服,她们多在剧中扮演
女侠、女将甚至女仙、女妖等。武旦和刀马旦的表演往往还伴随着热闹的锣鼓点,烘托场上的气氛。
"老旦",指在剧中扮演老年妇女的角色行当。为突出老年人的特点,走路迈一种沉稳的横八字步,服装色调为色彩偏暗的秋香色、墨绿色,演唱用真声表现。

Role of Dan in Peking Opera

The roles on the Chinese opera stage fall into four categories: Sheng, Dan, Jing and Chou. These roles have the natural features of age and sex, as well as social status, and are artificially exaggerated by makeup, costume and gestures.

Dan is the general term in Peking Opera for female roles. As early as in the Song Dynasty (960-1279), the Zhuangdan role appeared. Southern Drama and Northern Zaju, which developed during the Song and Yuan Dynasties (960-1368), also had Dan roles. After Kunqu matured, it had Zhengdan, Xiaodan, Tidan and Laodan. Later, more Dan types were developed. Nowadays, the Dan roles are subdivided into Zhengdan (or Qingyi), Huadan, Wudan, Laodan and Caidan, in accordance with age, characteristics and social positions of the roles.

Zhengdan role was the main Dan role in the Northern Zaju. Zhengdan refers to young or middle-aged women with gentle and refined dispositions. Most of Zhengdan 's lines are delivered in song, and even the spoken parts are recited in rhythmic style. Always dressed in a blue gown, Zhengdan is also called Qingyi (blue clothes).

Huadan is a role for a vivacious maiden, a young woman with a frank and open personality, or a woman of questionable character.

Wudan refers to female characters skilled in the martial arts and can be subdivided into Daomadan and Wudan, according to the social positions and skills represented. Daomadan is good at using pikes and spears, and at riding horses. Wudan always wears short robes and the role emphasizes acrobatics. Wudan plays gods and ghosts and has excellent fighting skills.

Laodan usually represents aged women. He/She sings in their natural voices, in a style similar to that of Laosheng but in milder tones. In some types of opera, Laodan is called Fudan or Bodan.

Caidan, also called Choudan, represents clownish and cunning females. The performance of this part calls for exuberance.


净行
在京剧中,"净"角是舞台上具有独特风格的人物类型,脸部化妆最为丰富彩。"净"因面部化妆要用各种色彩和图案勾勒脸谱,所以又俗称"大花脸"。一般扮演品貌或者性格有特点的男子,在京剧中多为将军、神化人物或有一定 社会地位的人,虽有文武善恶之分,但在性格气质上都近乎粗犷、奇伟、豪迈,因而在演唱上要求用真声演唱,音色宽阔洪亮、粗壮浑厚,动作造型也要求粗线条,气度恢宏,以突出扮演人物的性格和声势。


Role of Jing

The roles on the Chinese opera stage fall into four categories: Sheng, Dan, Jing and Chou. These roles have the natural features of age and sex, as well as social status, and are artificially exaggerated by makeup, costume and gestures.

Jing refers to painted-face roles, known popularly as Hualian. The different colors and designs on the faces represent males with different characteristics. Some are bold and vigorous and some are sinister, ruthless, crude and rash. The voice is loud and clear, and the movements are exaggerated.

The Jing role originates from the Fujing role of the Song Zaju. The Jing roles gradually increased in number, and became further divided into several groups, according to the different social positions and characters of the roles.

Dahualian with a fully painted face is known as Zheng Jing. The roles represent men of high social standing and good behavior, often court ministers. Zheng Jing sings in vigorous and sturdy tones.

Erhualian, also known as Fu Jing, has powerful bodily movements and sturdy singing voices. Some roles in this group represent rascally ministers, recognizable by their white faces.

Wu'er Hualian is also known as Wu Jing. This role is more physical than most of the others, with little singing or reciting.

You Hualian, also known as Mao Jing, is a clownish role. Some of You Hualian roles have special skills, such as spouting fire from the mouth or baring the teeth.


 
丑行
京剧中的"丑"角演员又称为"小花脸"。"丑"行的化妆虽与大花脸有点相象,可是他的表演风格却完全不同,有点像夸张的漫画。丑角的出场常会带来满堂的笑声。
"丑"分"文丑"和"武丑"两类。武丑扮演的经常是一些机警风趣、武艺高超的人物,象绿林好汉、侠盗小偷等等。"文丑"经常扮演花花公子、狱卒、酒保、更夫、老兵等。不管文丑或武丑,虽有文武善恶、身份高低之分,在剧中都是幽默、滑稽的喜剧人物,也并不都是反派。
京剧的行当是经过长期的提炼和规范,突出人物的内在特征,把人物的内在特征加以外化而形成的,是京剧与其他戏剧形式不同的重要特征。


Role of Chou in Peking Opera

The roles on the Chinese opera stage fall into four categories: Sheng Dan, Jing and Chou. These roles have the natural features of age and sex, as well as social status, and are artificially exaggerated by makeup, costume and gestures.

The Chou is one of the main roles in Peking Opera. The eyes and nose are surrounded by a white patch, so Chou is also known as Xiao Hua Lian (partly painted face).

The Chou roles originated in Southern Drama of the Song and Yuan dynasties (960-1368) and appear in various kinds of operas. They portray various kinds of characters, some are warm-hearted, simple and sincere, and some are sinister and mean.

In modern operas, the performance of Chou roles has developed rapidly, and different operas have their own styles. In general, the Chou roles do not focus on singing, but the dialogue is clear and fluent. According to the social positions, characters and skills demanded, the Chou roles are divided into two categories: Wenchou (civilian) and Wuchou (martial). Both have their own special features.

Wuchou is also known as Kai Kou Tiao. It requires not only a good command of the martial arts or acrobatics, but also the ability to deliver the lines both clearly and fluently. The movements should be light and powerful.

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